Mortgage Assistance

Facing Foreclosure

Purchasing a home can be one of the most significant investments a person or family makes. After the sale is complete, there is often no one available to consult with when you experience financial troubles and face foreclosure. This article is designed to provide a basic introduction and description of the foreclosure process, the laws governing foreclosure, and possible options for those facing foreclosure.

What Are the Different Types of Foreclosures?

In Texas, the type of foreclosure process that is used by a lender depends on the type of debt that is owed. There are two general classes of foreclosure: a non-judicial foreclosure and a judicial foreclosure. A non-judicial foreclosure — performed without involving a court or judge — is used when the loan was used to purchase the home or to refinance the original purchase loan. A judicial foreclosure generally occurs when a government entity is seeking to collect taxes owed on the property. The government will file a lawsuit with the court seeking to have your property sold to pay for property taxes that are owed.

There is also a third type of foreclosure that combines parts of the non-judicial and judicial foreclosures and is used only for specific types of loans. If a homeowner has received a home equity loan or a loan that was used to pay property taxes, the lender must obtain a court order approving the foreclosure before performing a non-judicial foreclosure. After the lender provides the first notice and the homeowner does not pay the debt owed, the lender must file an application with the court requesting an order of foreclosure. The homeowner has 38 days to file a response to the foreclosure application. If a response is filed, the court will hold a hearing to determine whether the lender is entitled to foreclosure. If a foreclosure order is signed by the court, the lender will then be allowed to continue with a non-judicial foreclosure by providing the second notice, which is the Notice of Sale.

What Steps Are Involved in a Non-judicial Foreclosure?

Once a homeowner has missed a mortgage payment and is in default under the promissory note, the lender may attempt several unofficial steps to resolve the problem, such as collection calls, letters, acceptance of partial payments, or negotiating a temporary payment plan. Assuming that these efforts have not resolved the problem and the lender is ready to proceed with a nonjudicial
foreclosure, the following actions must be performed by the lender:

1) Notice of Default and Intent to Accelerate (the first notice);
2) Notice of Sale and Acceleration of Debt (the second notice);
3) Foreclosure Sale;
4) Distribution of Proceeds;
5) Eviction;
6) Deficiency Action; and
7) No Right of Redemption for Non-judicial Foreclosure.

What Options Are Available to Avoid a Non-judicial Foreclosure?

A foreclosure can be canceled, delayed, or avoided at any time prior to the sale at the courthouse. The best time to reach a resolution is during the 20-day period after receipt of the first notice. During this time, you are required to pay only the past due amounts and not the entire loan amount. If you believe that you will be able to gather the necessary funds to bring the loan current, it would be wise to contact the lender and keep them informed on your progress as they may be willing to extend the 20-day period if they believe that the matter can be resolved without further action. If you cannot pay the entire amount that is due, your lender may be willing to agree to a payment plan, loan modification, or other arrangement to bring the loan current and ensure that you will be able to make future payments. In certain situations, it is possible that your lender must consider modification if your home loan qualifies under new laws passed to provide relief from rising foreclosures, such as the Making Home Affordable plan and the Home Affordable Modification Program.

Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure

A deed in lieu of foreclosure involves a scenario where the homeowner voluntarily transfers ownership of the property to the lender. Deeds in lieu of foreclosure are quicker to complete, cost less money for the lender, and are more confidential than a public sale. However, this is usually only an option when ownership of the property is free and clear of mortgages, liens, and encumbrances. Homeowners will be left with the same final result as with a foreclosure — the loss of their residence.

Bankruptcy

The filing of a bankruptcy petition will immediately stop a foreclosure sale from occurring as of the filing of the petition. However, you will be required to continue making some type of regular payments and make some payments toward the delinquency as part of your bankruptcy plan. Filing for bankruptcy is a major event and should not be taken lightly or performed without careful consideration.

For assistance when facing foreclosure, please call the Law Office of Gregory A. Ross at 940-692-7800, or email us at info@gregoryrosspc.com

This article was excerpted from Facing Foreclosure, a brochure prepared as a public service by the Texas Young Lawyers Association and distributed by the State Bar. To obtain a complete copy of the pamphlet, write to the State Bar Public Information Department at P.O. Box 12487, Austin, 78711-2487; call (800) 204-2222, ext. 1800; or visit www.tyla.org.

Financial Peace University

“More than one million families have attended Financial Peace University with amazing results. On average, these families paid off $5,300 in debt and saved $2,700 in just the first 90 days! Stop worrying about money, and start your journey to Financial Peace today.”  Taken from Financial Peace University, http://www.daveramsey.com/fpu/home/

Years ago I discovered Financial Peace University (FPU) and can honestly say it made a significant difference in my financial life.  While I sometimes stray from the ideas taught in this course, overall its teachings guide my financial planning.  I would encourage you to look into this program.  The instructor, Dave Ramsey, is entertaining as well as passionate about  FPU. The course teaches on the following subjects:

  • Super Saving – How and why to save money
  • Relation with Money – How to communicate with your partner about money
  • Cash Flow Planning – Developing a monthly budget that works
  • Dumping Debt – Tools to eliminate debt in your life
  • Credit Sharks in Suits – Credit scores and how to deal with debt collectors
  • Buyer Beware – Marketing and its effects on you
  • Clause and Effect – Understanding the world of insurance
  • That’s Not Good enough – Understanding the power of purchasing with cash
  • Of Mice and Mutual Funds – Understanding the jargon surrounding investing
  • From Fruition to Tuition – Retirement/college planning
  • Working in Your Strengths – Finding that right job
  • Real Estate and Mortgages – Understanding the largest investment most will make
  • The Great Misunderstanding – How generous giving can change your life

I have no connection with and make no money from this course.  I simply think it is the best course out there.  If you’ve ever struggled with finances, please consider Financial Peace University.

Federal Mortgage Assistance Programs

FEDERAL PROGRAMS

The Housing and Economic Recovery Act, Public Law 110-289, was passed on July 30, 2008. It created the HOPE for Homeowners program. It is effective from October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2011. 

In February 2009, President Obama introduced the Making Home Affordable program, which authorized the Home Affordable Refinance program and the Home Affordable Modification program. The Home Affordable Refinance program expires on June 10, 2011 and the Home Affordable Modification program expires on December 31, 2012.

HOPE for Homeowners Program

This program’s goal is to reduce principal and interest payments for eligible borrowers by allowing them to refinance into fixed rate 30-year FHA-insured loans based on current property values. Lender participation is voluntary. Eligible mortgages must have been originated by January 1, 2008. Borrowers must certify that they:

1. have a mortgage debt-to-income of at least 31%,

2. are unable to afford their current loan,

3. have not intentionally missed mortgage payments,

4. do not own second homes, and

5. have not been convicted of mortgage fraud.

Additionally, they must certify that the mortgaged property is their primary residence, and is a single-family home (one to four units).

Original lenders must agree to:

1. pay a 3% one-time insurance fee to FHA;

2. write down the mortgage to achieve a 90% loan-to-value ratio, if necessary;

3. waive prepayment penalties on the existing mortgage; and

4. release all existing claims, such as second mortgages.

The new loan may not exceed 90% of the property’s current appraised value. The maximum loan amount is 132% of the Freddie Mac limit. The program is effective from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2011.

The Making Home Affordable Program

This federal program offers two options for mortgage applicants and seeks to make mortgages more affordable and prevent foreclosures. Lender participation is voluntary. The two options for homeowners are the Home Affordable Refinance program and the Home Affordable Modification program. Investors and lenders are provided incentives for participating in the Making Home Affordable program. The Making Home Affordable website refers homeowners to contact (888) 995-HOPE.

The Home Affordable Refinance Program.

This program is for applicants whose existing mortgage is owned by Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae and who have not missed any mortgage payments. Normally, they would be ineligible to refinance because their homes have decreased in value. The program allows them to refinance into a more stable and affordable fixed-rate loan. The program is in effect until June 2011.

The Home Affordable Modification Program.

This program assists homeowners who are at-risk and may have already missed a mortgage payment. However, payment delinquency is not a criterion for eligibility. Modifications may start immediately and continue until December 31, 2012, and loans may be modified only once. The Treasury will partner with the financial institution and investors to reduce a homeowner’s monthly mortgage payments. Criteria for eligibility in this program include the following:

1. the loan must have been originated on or before January 1, 2009;

2. the owner must occupy the property;

3. the first-lien loan has an unpaid balance of up to $ 729,750;

4. the mortgage payment is more than 31% of the homeowner’s gross monthly income; and

5. the applicant must sign an affidavit of financial hardship.

 Only the homeowner’s first mortgage is eligible for modification under this program.